Est. time: 20 min

Since 1961, affirmative action has been both praised and criticized as an answer to racial inequality. The term "affirmative action" was first introduced by President Kennedy in 1961 as a method of redressing discrimination that had persisted in spite of constitutional guarantees. In 1964, President Johnson addressed and enforced the issue. He stated: "This is the next and more profound stage of the battle for civil rights. We seek not just equality as a right and a theory, but equality as a fact and as a result." Focusing in particular on education and jobs, affirmative action policies required that active measures be taken to ensure that blacks and other minorities enjoyed the same opportunities for promotions, salary increases, career advancement, school admissions, scholarships, and financial aid that had been the nearly exclusive province of whites. Affirmative action is intended to promote equal opportunity. From the outset, affirmative action was envisioned as a temporary remedy that would end once there was a "level playing field" for all Americans. It continues today. In this tutorial, the following objectives will be addressed: Affirmative Action Defined; Federal Affirmative Action Requirements; Affirmative Action Plans; Requirements for Federal Contractors; And recommendations for Schools. 

State Customized Versions available for: NJ